UNDER GRADUATE (ADVANCED LEVEL): (August- March, 2 classes / week each of 45 minutes duration)

**Electromagnetic Theory****Classical Mechanics –I**

**Course Outline :**

a. Mechanics of a Single Particle

Velocity and acceleration of a particle in (i) plane polar coordinates – radial and cross-radial components (ii) spherical polar and (iii) cylindrical polar co-ordinate system; Time and path integral of force; work and energy; Conservative force and concept of potential; Dissipative forces; Conservation of linear and angular momentum.

b. Mechanics of a System of Particles

Linear momentum, angular momentum and energy – centre of mass decompositon; Equations of motion,

conservation of linear and angular momenta.

c. Rotational Motion

Moment of inertia, radius of gyration; Energy and angular momentum of rotating systems of particles;

Parallel and perpendicular axes theorems of moment of inertia; Calculation of moment of inertia for

simple symmetric systems; Ellipsoid of inertia and inertia tensor; Setting up of principal axes in simplesymmetric cases. Rotating frames of reference -Coriolis and centrifugal forces, simple examples. Force-free motion of rigid bodies – free spherical top and free symmetric top.

**3. Thermodynamics**

a. Basic Concepts

Microscopic and macroscopic points of view : thermodynamic variables of a system, State function, exact

and inexact differentials.

b. First Law of Thermodynamics

Thermal equilibrium, Zeroth law and the concept of temperature. Thermodynamic equilibrium, internal

energy, external work, quasistatic process, first law of thermodynamics and applications including

magnetic systems, specific heats and their ratio, isothermal and adiabatic changes in perfect and real

gases. (5)

c. Second Law of Thermodynamics

Reversible and irreversible processes, indicator diagram. Carnot’s cycles-efficiency, Carnot’s theorem.

Kelvin’s scale of temperature, relation to perfect gas scale, second law of thermodynamics – different

formulations and their equivalence, Clausius inequality, entropy, change of entropy in simple reversible

and irreversible processes, entropy and disorder; equilibrium and entropy principle, principle of

degradation of energy

d. Thermodynamic Functions

Enthalpy, Helmholtz and Gibbs’ free energies; Legendre transformations, Maxwell’s relations and simple

deductions using these relations; thermodynamic equilibrium and free energies.

e. Change of State

Equilibrium between phases, triple point : Gibbs’ phase rule (statement only) and simple applications.First and higher order phase transitions, Ehrenfest criterion. Clausius-Clapeyron’s equation. Joule-Thomson effect.Atomic & Molecular Physics

** 4. Atomic & Molecular Physics **

a. Atomic Spectrum

Good quantum numbers, and selection rules. Stern-Gerlach experiment and spin as an intrinsic quantum

number. Incompatibility of spin with classical ideas. Bohr-Sommerfeld model. Fine structure. Study of

fine structure by Michelson interferometer.

b. Vector atom model

Magnetic moment of the electron, Lande g factor. Vector model – space quantization. Zeeman

effect. Explanation from vector atom model.

c. Many electron model

Pauli exclusion principle, shell structure. Hund’s rule, spectroscopic terms of many electron atoms in the

ground state.

d. Molecular spectroscopy

Diatomic molecules – rotational and vibrational energy levels. Basic ideas about molecular

spectra. Raman effect and its application to molecular spectroscopy .

** 5. Laser Physics**

Population inversion, Einstein’s A and B coefficients; feedback of energy on a resonator; 3-level and 4-level

systems.

**6. Classical Mechanics – II**

a. Central force problem

Motion under central force; Nature of orbits in an attractive inverse square field; Kepler’s laws of planetary

motion. Rutherford scattering as an example of repulsive potential.

b. Mechanics of Ideal Fluids

Streamlines and flowlines; Equation of continuity; Euler’s equation of motion; Streamline motion –

Bernoulli’s equation and its applications. Definition of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids.

c. Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formulation of Classical Mechanics

Generalised coordinates, constraints and degrees of freedom; D’Alembart’s principle; Lagrange’s equation

for conservative systems (from D’Alembert’s principle; variational principle not required) and its application

to simple cases; Generalised momentum; Idea of cyclic coordinates, its relation with conservation principles;

Definition of Hamiltonian, Hamilton’s equation (derivation by Legendre transformation) and its application

to simple cases.

** 7. Practical (Electrical & Optics Lab)**

UNDERGRADUATE (GENERAL LEVEL): (August- March, 1 class / week each of 45 minutes duration)

- Classical Mechanics
- Special Theory of Relativity
- Practical

POST GRADUATE LEVEL (July-September : 1 class /week each of 2 hrs duration)

- Molecular Physics
- Applications of Group Theory in Molecular Physics

**Course Outline :**